写真

Photographer's Note

Sremski Karlovci is a small town situated on the slopes of Fru嗅a gora, 57 kilometers from Belgrade and 11 kilometers from Novi Sad. In this town which was ignitioned and ravaged for several times a lot of historical and cultural monuments from the past still remained preserved, thanks to historical events. Chronological development of Sremski Karlovci can be viewed from the ancient times. Kalakača, Laka staza and Seli嗾e are the most famous archeological sites with finds dating the Neolitic period.

Greeks and Celts passed through Sremski Karlovci and stayed here for longer or shorter periods of time. Romans understood that beside strategic importance (communications and system of strongholds built on Danube banks - named 斗imes) this part of Srem also provides good conditions for wine growing. Caesar Marcus Aurelius Probus, roman emperor from the end of the 3rd century A.D., planted this culture in Divo region. Roman period in the history of Sremski Karlovci is at the same time period of out breaking of wine growing in this region.

During the time of great migrations, from 5th to 7th century, various barbaric tribes such as Soths, Sopids, Huns and Avars passed through these areas and lived here for longer or shorter periods of time. When the Eastern Goths and Gethids were lost any trail of settlements in the region disappeared for next seven and a half centuries.

In written documents settlement is mentioned for the first time in 1308 as the 適arom stronghold. Even today minor remains can be seen on the slopes behind the City Hall. Its owners used to change. It is known that until 1521 Karom was under rule of a Hungarian noble family Batori. In 1521 ottoman soldier Bali-beg demolished the stronghold which was never rebuild and he took over Karom. For the next 170 years Sremski Karlovci were part of the Ottoman empery. A lot of written document remained from that period, mainly written by Austrian ministers in their itineraries. In one of these itineraries, written by Antun Vranić in 1533, for the first time Slavic name Karlovci was used. At the end of the Great Viennese war (1863-1699), as a result of intercession of England and Holland, Austria, Poland and Venice on one side and Ottoman empire on the other side, on January 26th, 1699 the world wide famous Karlovci痴 peace treaty was concluded. Negotiations lasted for 72 days and on a slope where negotiation took place the Chappel of Virgin Mary of Peace was later built by Franciscans. With that peace treaty Ottomans practically withdrew from Middle Europe. They managed to cross back on lost territories over Danube in predatory forays only occasionally. Since then, the history of Sremski Karlovci is much more linked to the history of the Habsburg Monarchy.

The most important period in history of Sremski Karlovci and in history of Serbs in Vojvodina was 18th century. In that period Sremski Karlovci became center of public, political, educational and artistic life of Serbs settled north of Sava and Danube rivers. Based on privileges given by Austrian emperor Leopold I in 1690, Serbs were granted to have freedom of religion, right to choose archbishop and church authorities.

The Kru啼dol monastery became a center of the newly founded Mitropoly in 1708. On the third church convocation in 1713, during the time of mitropolitan Vićentije Popović, Karlovci became new center of the Mitropoly.

Economic, political and cultural rising of Sremski Karlovci during 20 of 18th century provided founding of first Serbian schools. Metropolitans themselves took care about schools functioning. They used to bring erudite people from Russia to work as teachers and paid for school and students costs.

Viennese royal politics, emperor痴 Maria Theresa above all other, had strong centralistic aspirations and tried to brake national conscience evolution among Serbs. It was practically the basis of their politics toward Serbs in Vojvodina. In these circumstances the most important role was of mitropolitan Stefan Stratimirović, who used his reputation and good connections as well as intensive political activity to carry through the Imperial Charter in 1791. This Charter meant that the first secondary school - gymnasium among Serbs could open. The Gymnasium in Sremski Karlovci started with work on 1st of November, 1792. Three years later the Orthodox Seminary, second among Orthodox Christians (the first one was in Kiev), started with its work.

During the rough revolutionary years in 1848 and 1849 Sremski Karlovci became the center of the Union of the South Slavs living in the Habsburg Monarchy. Some very important events took place here. Mitropolitan Josif Rajačić called a meeting which later in history became known as May Assembly. One of the decisions of the Assembly was, among other things, that the provinces of Srem, Bačka, Baranja, Banat and Tami嗅i Banat became one autonomous duchy (Vojvodina) and it is from that time that this part of our country has been called Vojvodina. The first elected duke was an Austrian general, Serb named Stevan 隔pljikac. The Mitropoly got the rank of Patriarchy headed by Josif Rajačić. The temporary government was organized and was called The Main National Council. At the same time political, economic, financial and other councils were formed. In 1860 Serbian autonomous duchy - Vojvodina was appended to Hungary.

Karlovci was a town where in 1904 a first Serbian sport association - 鉄okolarsko dru嗾vo was founded. After the First World War ended Sremski Karlovci became the part of the new state of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians (Yugoslavia) on 1st of December, 1918. During the second world war town was part of so called Independent Country of Croatia. Sremski Karlovci was liberated on 23rd of October, 1944.

Today, Sremski Karlovci is town with approximately 9 000 inhabitants, but despite small number of inhabitants its significance for Serbian history, culture and spirituality is huge.

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Additional Photos by Zorica Helach (zhelach) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 225 W: 55 N: 832] (3626)
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